A REVIEW ON ALTERNATIVES TO REDUCE TESTING ON ANIMAL
An approach of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being implemented for laboratory use of animals. Various methods and alternative organisms are implemented to adopt strategies. These strategies include alternate means, up to certain stages, for drug and chemical research. A short account of these alternatives and associated benefits is explored with examples in this study. In research studies, an integrated implementation of these methods will provide insight into the least use of animals. The amount of animals used in research has increased with the rise of science and the advent in medical technology. Every year, millions of laboratory animals are used around the world. The pain, distress and death suffered by animals has long been a source of controversy during laboratory experiments. In addition to the key ethical problem, animal research has few other limitations, such as skilled labour standards, time-consuming processes and high costs. Different alternatives to animal testing have been proposed in order to address the drawbacks involved with animal experiments and to discourage unethical procedures.