• Deepali Wankhade
  • Deepali Wankhade


The Ganga is not only a holy river, but also a lifeline for India's vast population, as it occupies over 26% of the country's area in its northern basin and drains 25% of the annual run-off. Rapid urbanization, industrialization and high demand for water have resulted in significant water quality depletion problems. Monitoring of water quality suggested that in some of the segments, the river is contaminated, the worst affected being between Kannauj and Allahabad, approximately 350 km long. Approximately 12,222 million litres of domestic wastewater per day (mld) and 2500 mld of industrial wastewater are produced in the basin, of which about 2573 mld of wastewater is generated along its shore.Many of its tributaries are highly polluted and chemical contamination indicated by BOD and pathogens indicated by coliform count are the major water quality issues. There is a fluctuating water quality pattern due to the flow conditions in the river that rely on rainfall and abstraction of water. It is very necessary that no waste water is discharged into the river, considering the shortage of water in the basin. In different segments of the river impacted by water abstraction, there is an immediate need to increase water availability in the basin through rainwater capture, water management and environmental flow determination