A REVIEW ON THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE NANOMATERIALS WITH THE EFFECT OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The field of nanotechnology continues to expand rapidly and the increasing use in commercial products of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) translates into a growing presence in the biosphere.Increasing the use of engineered nanomaterials with novel properties has created a need to identify their environmental behaviors and impacts relative to their bulk counterparts.Engineered NMs are processed materials that have at least one nanoscale dimension (approx. 1-100 nm) on the scale.In environmental media, the high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles results in extremely reactive and physio-chemically dynamic materials. Multiple transformations, such as responses to responses with in both environmental and biological systems, bio-macro-molecules, redox reactions, aggregation, and dissolution can arise. The fate, transportation, and toxicity of nanomaterials will change these transformations and others.Before substantial progress can be made in understanding the environmental threats posed by these products, the existence and scale of these transformations must be known.